In Arabic, it’s called “the father of terror.” To us it’s a riddle. Who built Egypt’s Great Sphinx? No one can say for sure (though several of the more crazy theories finger space aliens). The huge limestone statue, as tall as the White House with paws bigger than city buses, was erected in the time of the Old Kingdom, probably during the reign of the Pharaoh Khafre, between the years 2558 and 2532 B.C. The crouching lion with a man’s head was ancient when Cleopatra gazed upon it in 47 B.C. It retains its allure to the powerful, as world leaders from Napoleon to Barack Obama have trekked to Giza to contemplate the same view that captivated the queen of the Nile.
The Sphinx is an alias, created by the ancient Greeks when the statue was already centuries old. The early name was Hor-em-akhet, meaning “Horus in the horizon.” Horus is the Egyptian god of the sky.
Out of the seven wonders of the ancient world, only the Pyramids of Giza and the Great Sphinx are still standing.
It was originally painted in garish comic-book colours like red (traces of the pigment can be seen by its ear).
In Las Vegas, the Egyptian-themed Luxor Hotel’s foam and plaster version is 35 feet taller than the original Sphinx, which rises 66 feet.
The Sphinx originally sported a beard which eventually crumbled. A piece of its “stubble” is displayed in the British Museum in London.
Legend says the library of the sunken island of Atlantis is stowed beneath the Sphinx, with an entrance near its right paw. Nothing has been found, according to bemused archaeologists.
Contrary to popular history, Napoleon’s cannonballs did not shoot off the Sphinx’s nose. The evidence suggests the nose was intentionally cleaved off at least 300 years before the Little Corporal invaded Egypt in 1798.
If you don’t like the Saharan sun, try booking a seat for the sound-and-light show at night when desert temperatures are cooler. The programme bathes the Sphinx and pyramids in vivid colours as a narrator relays their history.
The Great Sphinx has a Facebook page you can visit.
Appeared in the January 2013 issue as “Great Sphinx”.